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Department of Botany

Since 1980

Calophyllum inophyllum L.



   Botanical NameCalophyllum inophyllum L.
   SynonymsCalophyllum inophyllum. Var. takamaka Fosberg; Calophyllum inophyllum Var. wakamatsui (Kaneh.) Fosberg & Sachet
   Common NameEnglish : Tamanu, Mast Wood / Tamil Punnai Maram
   DistributionGlobal : Tropical and Subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and Madagascar
Indian: Throughout India.
   Description: Large evergreen tree up to 30m height, bark black and cracked with fissures, Inner bark reddish with yellow exudates, crown irregular. Leaves petiolate, exstipulate, simple, opposite decussate, Lanceolate to obovate or elliptic, margin entire, leathery and subcoriaceous. Inflorescence terminal or axillary panicle racemes. Flower white, fragrant, bracteate, bract caducous, pedicellate, polygamous, tetramerous, and hypogynous. Sepals 4, ovate, petaloid and nerved, petals 4 rarely 3 or 5, white, ovate, or elliptic, nerved. Stamens many, filament long, connate 4-6 bundles, cream coloured, anther rounded or retuse. Ovary globular, unilocular, superior, style long slender, stigma peltate. Fruit indehiscent drupe, ovoid-globose, with thin exocarp, dry mesocarp and stony or spongy endocarp. Seeds 1, ovoid-globose, with large cotyledons, exalbuminous, with oil content.
   Flowering Fruiting periodApril – June and October – December/ Throughout the year
   UsesTimber for ship building, Planted as ornamental and environmental management in coastal areas, seeds used for oil extraction.
   Medicinal UsesUsed for treatment of ulcer, eye infection. It also reported to have anticancer, antiviral and antibacterial properties.
   Tamil NamePunnai